Current Issue Volume 6, Number 1 , January-March (Supplement) 2018

ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Sravanthi Veeramachaneni, Tulluru Ajay Mohan, Mareddy Ajay Reddy, Suresh Chand Yaddanapalli

Evaluation of Primary and Permanent tooth Enamel Surface Morphology and Microhardness after Nd: YAG Laser Irradiation and APF Gel Treatment - An In Vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S1-6]



Aims and Objectives: This study aims to evaluate and compare the morphological changes and hardness variations of enamel in control, lased, and combination of fluoridated and lased tooth surface.

Materials and Methods: Sixty primary teeth and 60 permanent teeth were sectioned into two equal halves and assigned randomly into three groups: Control group, Nd: YAG laser only, and 1.23% APF gel followed Nd: YAG lasing (laser-activated fluoride [LAF]). One half of each sample was kept in deminer-alization solution, and they were evaluated using microhard-ness (Vickers) tester and scanning electron microscope.

Results: Statistical analysis was performed. There was a significant increase in microhardness of enamel for LAF group and only laser groups after demineralization. In the laser alone group showed fine surface cracks and porosities before demineraliza-tion, and there was increased in cracks and craters after deminer-alization. In the LAF group, an irregular contour with marked crack propagation and glazed coalescence of fluorhydroxyapatite crystals before demineralization and increased homogenous surface coatings of fluoride covering the enamel after demineralization.

Conclusion: Nd: YAG laser irradiation and combined APF gel and Nd: YAG laser treatment of the primary and permanent tooth gave morphologically hardened enamel surface after demineralization.

Keywords: APF gel, Microhardness, Nd: YAG laser, Permanent tooth enamel, Primary tooth enamel, Scanning electron microscope.

How to cite this article: Veeramachaneni S, Mohan TA, Reddy MA, Yaddanapalli SC. Evaluation of Primary and Permanent tooth Enamel Surface Morphology and Microhardness after Nd: YAG Laser Irradiation and APF Gel Treatment - An In Vitro Study. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):1-6.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Anupama Ahirwar, Pavithra K Ramanna, Shabna Moyin, Sameer Punathil, V J Adarsh, Aditi Chohan

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Different Disinfectant Materials on Alginate Impression - A Comparative Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S7-11]



Background: Impressions constitute one of the main factors in the chain of infection. Dental impressions are one such kind in which the sterilization is not possible and can hence act as ameans of transmitting infectious agents from patients to those who handle them subsequently. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of spray disinfectants against oral microorganisms on the irreversible hydro-colloid impression material that is alginate.

Material and Methods: In this study, alginate impressions of 30 patients were taken. 10 patients were randomly divided into three groups each. Different groups of the study are Group A - 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, Group B - 2% glutaraldehyde, and Group C - distilled water. The total bacterial count was taken for each impression before and after disinfection to compare the effectiveness against oral microorganisms.

Results: 2%, glutaraldehyde i.e., Group B was the most effective among all the groups which resulted in 99.3% reduction in the total bacterial count. 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, i.e., Group A caused 98.4%, and d istilled water, i.e., Group C caused 36% reduction in bacterial count. On statistical analysis, there was a significant difference in post-disinfection total bacterial count among three groups.

Conclusion: 2% glutaraldehyde and 0.5% sodium hypochlo-rite spray disinfectants can be effectively used for the disinfection of alginate impressions.

Keywords: Alginate, Glutaraldehyde, Irreversible hydrocol-loid, Sodium hypochlor.

How to cite this article: Ahirwar A, Ramanna PK, Moyin S, Punathil S, Adarsh VJ, Chohan A. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Different Disinfectant Materials on Alginate Impression - A Comparative Study. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S7-11.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Suhas R Nayak, Ajay Kumar Haridas, Lin Jacob Varghese, M Mubasheer, Tarun Nanu, P V Nithin

In Vitro Assessment of Tensile Strength of Surgical Suture Materials

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S12-15]



Background: Suturing in dentistry is different from suturing in the other parts of the body because of the type of tissues involved, the constant presence of saliva, high tissue vascu-larization, and functions related to speech, mastication, and swallowing. Appropriate sutures require specific physical characteristics and properties, such as good tensile strength, dimensional stability, and lack of memory, knot security, and sufficient flexibility to avoid damage to the oral mucosa. Hence, the present study was conducted with an aim to assess the tensile strength of different surgical suture materials.

Materials and Methods: This study consisted of three different types of absorbable suture materials (polyglycolic acid, chromic gut, and polyglyconate) with two gauges (4-0 and 5-0) of each type which were used. Surgeon’s knot was used to tie around a flexible rubber tubing, that allows for a consistent loop size that would be practical during the mechanical analysis phase. A total of 120 suture specimens (20 of each material and gauge) were used in the present study. All the samples were immersed in the artificial saliva to stimulate the oral environment. The tensile strength of the suturing materials was tested at pre-immersion and 1st, 7th, and 14th days of post-immersion. A universal testing machine was used to record the tensile strength of suturing materials.

Results: The 4-0 gauges of polyglycolic acid and chromic gut suturing material show greater tensile strength compared to 5-0 gauge material. Moreover, there was a statistically significant difference found at pre-immersion, 1st day, and 7th day. The greater tensile strength of polyglyconate 4-0 gauge was found on pre-immersion state. Moreover, there was a statistically significant difference found at pre-immersion and 1st day.

Conclusion: All 4-0 suture materials were stronger and had greater tensile strength than 5-0 suture materials. Chromic gut showed a sustain strength better than polyglycolic acid and polyglyconate suturing materials after 14 days.

Keywords: Absorbable, Biodegradation, Suture materials, Tensile strength.

How to cite this article: Nayak SR, Haridas AK, Varghese LJ, Mubasheer M, Nanu T, Nithin PV. In Vitro Assessment of Tensile Strength of Surgical Suture Materials. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S12-15.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Torwane Nilesh Arjun, Ashwini Dayma, Mayur Mishra, Kalit Raj Joshi, Lok Raj Khanal, Venkat Raman Singh

Assessment of Periodontal Status among Psychiatric Inmates Residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India: A Cross-Sectional Survey

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S16-22]



Aim: The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the periodontal status among psychiatric jail patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Materials and Methods: The study subjects consisted of pre-di-agnosed psychiatric patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal. A matched control consisting of cross-section of the population, i.e. jail inmates residing in the same central jail locality was also examined to compare the psychiatric subjects. The WHO oral health assessment pro forma was used to examine the peri-odontal status and loss of attachment of the subjects.

Results: The total number of subjects examined was 244, which comprised 122 psychiatric inmates and 122 non-psychiatric inmates. Majority of psychiatric inmates, i.e., 69 (56.6%) were living in the jail for more than 6 years which was followed by 50 (41%) non-psychiatric inmates. A total of 225 (92.2%) inmates were affected with periodontitis which comprised of 95.9% of psychiatric inmates and 88.5% non-psychiatric inmates.

Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral mucosal lesions occurring in a psychiatric inmate population. Leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis were the most common types of oral muco-sal lesions found. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of the prison population.

Keywords: Jail inmates, Periodontal diseases, Periodontal status, Psychiatric illness, Psychiatrics

How to cite this article: Torwane NA, Dayma A, Mishra M, Joshi KR, Khanal LR, Singh VR. Assessment of Periodontal Status among Psychiatric Inmates Residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India: A Cross Sectional Survey. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S16-22.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Deeksha Kiran Shetty, Sheetal Mali, Sarika Shetty, Neha Patil, Agraja Patil, Ankita Deshmukh

Effects of Different Curing Lights on Microleakage in Resin-Based Composite Restorations

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S23-27]



Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate and compare light-emitting diodes (LED) with the conventional halogen light-curing unit to see the effect of different curings on microleakage in resin-based composite restorations and to observe the degree of microleakage occurring in enamel and dentine.

Materials and Methods: A total of 60 human mandibular teeth were used for the study. To ensure no dye reached the cavities through the pulp chamber and the dentinal tubules, the apical foramina were sealed with Dyract AP composite. Class V cylindrical cavities were prepared on the facial surfaces of the teeth using fissure carbide bur (SSW FG 560). The cavities were prepared in enamel and dentine at the cement-enamel junction, 1.5 mm deep and 3 mm in diameter. The coronal half was in the enamel and the gingival half in the dentine. The cavities were treated with 35% phosphoric acid for 20 s and then rinsed with water for 15 s. Bonding agent was applied to enamel and dentine. The cavities were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. Each cavity was filled with Esthet-X and cured. The cavities in the first group were exposed to halogen light and in the second group were exposed to LED light unit for 40 s each. The teeth from both the groups were stored in physiological saline (0.5 g/100 ml, Nirlife) separately for 24 h at 37°C and were thermocycled in a 0.5% basic fuchsin solution. Teeth were sectioned and examined under *50 magnifications for dye penetration. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U-tests.

Results: There was a significant association (P = 0.572) between dye penetration scores and curing light for dentine. The values revealed that the amount of microleakage was more for halogen light compared to LED light. These values were significant at dentine level (P = 0.006).

Conclusions: From the present study, we can conclude that LED-based light-curing unit produced significantly less microleakage in enamel as well as dentin and halogen-based light-curing unit showed greater microleakage value in dentin.

Keywords: Dentin, Enamel, Halogen light, Light-emitting diodes, Microleakage.

How to cite this article: Shetty DK, Mali S, Shetty S, Patil N, Patil A, Deshmukh A. Effects of Different Curing Lights on Microleakage in Resin-based Composite Restorations. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S23-27.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Turki A Alharbi, Ahmed A Alharbi, Abdulaziz L Alharbi, Anshmi O Alanzi, Abdullah Turki Alharbi, Mohammed Al-harbi

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Infection Control among Dental Students at Colleges of Dentistry, Al-Qassim Region in Saudi Arabia

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S28-30]



Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the compliance, awareness, and practices of infection control procedures among dental students at colleges of dentistry, Al-Qassim Region in Saudi Arabia.

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the college of dentistry of 50 of dental students. The questionnaire was formed by the authors. It was a self-administered questionnaire consisted of 14 closed-ended questions related to barrier techniques, vaccination status, percutaneous, and mucous membrane exposures in addition to the dental treatment of infected patients, infection control practices, and awareness.

Results: The questionnaire was distributed among 113 senior dental students at the Al-Qassim Region of which only 50 students (44%) responded. Compliance with the use of protective barriers was high with the exception of protective eyewear, utilized by 20% of students. Regarding the treatment of patients with infectious diseases, 50% students did not mind treating patients with infectious diseases. Students suffered from non-sterile percutaneous and mucous membrane exposures compared with the maximum number of reported exposures was related to the use of local anesthesia needles.

Conclusions: Efforts are needed to improve attitudes, implement information and motivate students in the correct and routine use of infection control measures. With all infection control protocols already implemented in dental schools, the challenge remains on improving compliance with infection control recommendations.

Keywords: Dental students, Infection control, Oral health.

How to cite this article: Alharbi TA, Alharbi AA, Alharbi AL, Alanzi AO, Alharbi AT, Al-harbi M. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Infection Control among Dental Students at Colleges of Dentistry, Al-Qassim Region in Saudi Arabia. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(2):S28-30.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Urvashi Tomar, Mamta Singh, Aditee Jhingan, Bhuvnesh Airen, Nikit Agrawal, Priyanka Airen

Oral Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients and Its Correlation with CD4 Count

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S31-35]



Background: Oral candidiasis is one of the major oral lesions observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is linked to the immune suppression with a low CD4 count. The low CD4+ T lymphocyte count poses increased risk to the development of oral candidiasis in these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral candidiasis in HIV patients and its correlation with degree of immunosuppression by assessing CD4 count.

Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on HIV-positive patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were examined for the presence of Candida infection. The CD4 counts were measured and interrelated with the presence (or absence) of candidiasis.

Results: The most common oral lesions were candidia-sis (M = 86.6%, F = 71.4%), pigmentation (M = 73.3%, F = 78.5%), and periodontitis (M = 57.7%, F = 42.8%). Other lesions were ulcer, angular cheilitis, and gingivitis. Association of low CD4 count (<200 cells/mm3 and 0-201 cells/mm3) was found with the occurrence of oral candidiasis. Among various forms of oral candidiasis, pseudomembranous candidi-asis showed a highly significant association with CD4 counts <200 cells/ mm3.

Conclusion: According to the results, it is found that there is a correlation between occurrence of oral candidiasis and low CD4 count. It can be considered as indicator of the progression of the HIV infection.

Keywords: CD4 count, Human immunodeficiency virus positive, Opportunistic infections, Oral Candidiasis.

How to cite this article: Tomar U, Singh M, Jhingan A, Airen B, Agrawal N, Airen P. Oral Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients and Its Correlation with CD4 Count. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S31-35.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Ramkishore Ratre, Sandhya Jain, G. V. Kulkarni, Madhu Singh Ratre

Effect of Air Drying on Shear Bond Strength after Contamination with Saliva and Blood

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S36-40]



Objectives: The objective of this study was to study the effect of air drying after contamination with saliva and blood on shear bond strength (without decontamination) and debonding characteristics.

Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was performed taking 60 extracted human first premolars divided equally in three groups. Samples in Group A were bonded according to manufacturer instructions without contamination, in Group B, teeth were contaminated with 0.1 ml human saliva applied to the etched surface; the teeth were air dried then bonded with adhesive and primer. The teeth in Group C were contaminated with 0.1 ml fresh human blood applied to the etched surface; the teeth were air dried then bonded with adhesive and primer. Shear bond strength testing and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were performed.

Results: The differences in bond strengths and ARI scores between the groups were assessed by one-way ANOVA test and post-hoc Tukey test. Both the tests revealed statistically significant differences for bond strengths and ARI scores. Group A shows higher values for bond strength (13.86 mega-pascals [Mpa]) as compared with Group B (9.84 Mpa) and Group C (7.78 Mpa). Group A shows higher values for ARI (3.89) as compared with Group B (2.3) and Group C (0.7).

Conclusions: Saliva and blood contamination decreases the bond strength of composite resin adhesive after drying the contaminant.

Keywords: Acid etching, Blood contamination, Bond strength, Saliva contamination.

How to cite this article: Ratre R, Jain S, Kulkarni GV, Ratre MS. Effect of Air Drying on Shear Bond Strength after Contamination with Saliva and Blood. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S36-40.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Ateet Kakti

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Parents about Dental Fluorosis in their Children

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S41-43]



Introduction: Fluoride has played a pivotal role in oral health promotion over the past 50 years. The benefits of the low levels of exposure are outweighed by adverse effects at high level.

Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of schoolchildren about fluorosis.

Materials and Methods: A total of 300 subjects aged 18-30 years were selected by multistage cluster sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire containing 15 close-ended questions based on knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding fluoride and fluorosis was used for the purpose of collecting data.

Results: The results showed that majority of the people were not aware of fluoride in the toothpaste. About 68% of the subjects were of opinion that the discoloration on the tooth surface embarrasses while smiling or speaking. About 68% of people were not aware of the presence of fluoride in the foods they consumed.

Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that knowledge is deficient with respect to optimum concentration of fluoride, its role in prevention of caries, and the presence of fluoride in food and toothpaste. Attitude and practices are also unfavorable as far as oral health is considered. There is an urgent need to sensitize the parents regarding precise role of fluoride in oral health.

Keywords: Dental caries, Drinking water, Fluoride exposure, fluorosis, Knowledge, parents, Schoolchildren.

How to cite this article: Kakti A. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Parents about Dental Fluorosis in their Children. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S41-43.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Sumanth Unakalkar, Kritant Bhushan, Rajnish Sahu

Comparison of the Efficacy of Platelet-rich Fibrin with Platelet-rich Plasma in Third Molar Extraction Socket - A Prospective Clinical Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S44-49]



Objective: The objective is to compare the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the third molar extraction socket and also comparative evaluation of pain, swelling, trismus, periodontal health, and quality of bone healing between PRF and PRP.

Study Design: A total of 15 individuals with the age group of 18-40 years with bilateral impacted lower third molars were the study subjects and divided into two groups - Group (A) where extraction socket was placed with PRF and Group (B) where extraction socket placed with PRP.

Results: The result of our study suggested that there is no significant difference between both PRF and PRP in over pain, swelling, trismus, periodontal health, and bone healing in the third molar extraction socket but when compared with the method of preparation, consistency, and cost-effectiveness, PRF is better than PRP.

Conclusion: Both PRF and PRP are excellent materials to induce healing and have great potential in healing of bony defects in the jaws. When we take the cost into consideration, PRF is cost-effective as it does not require anticoagulant and chelating agent for preparation.

Keywords: Pain, Periodontal health, Platelet-rich fibrin, Platelet-rich plasma

How to cite this article: Unakalkar S, Bhushan K, Sahu R. Comparision ofthe Efficacy of Platelet-rich Fibrin with Platelet-rich Plasma in Third Molar Extraction Socket - A Prospective Clinical Study. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S44-49.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Arunendra Singh Chauhan, Sabyasachi Saha, L. Vamsi Krishna Reddy, Pooja M. Sinha

Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions and Normal Variants of the Oral Mucosa in 12 to 15-year-old School Students in Lucknow – A Cross-Sectional Survey

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S50-53]



Introduction: The diagnosis of oral mucosal lesions and normal variants of the oral mucosa is an essential aspect of dental practice and traditionally the mucosal membrane of the oral cavity has been looked on as a mirror of general health. Epidemiological studies conducted to date have been in adults and populations at high risk for specific lesions.

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and normal variants of the oral mucosa in 12-15-year-old school students in Lucknow and the relationship between the occurrences of these lesions with the possible risk factors.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done on 925 school going children of age 12-15 years, selected by multi-stage cluster random sampling. The data collection involved a pre-designed questionnaire to collect demographic information and smoking and smokeless tobacco chewing habits. The WHO Guide to Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Oral Mucosal Diseases (1980) was used to record the presence and anatomical location of the lesions. Oral mucosal examination was performed by a single trained and calibrated investigator. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact using SPSS version 22.0.

Results: The study result showed that 154 (16.6%) were diagnosed with at least one mucosal lesion at the time of examination. The prevalence of any oral mucosal lesion was 16.4% among boys and 16.9% among girls, but there were no statistically significant differences in oral mucosal lesion by gender. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was found to be statistically significant with tobacco habit.

Conclusions: This study suggests that oral mucosal lesions were diagnosed minimally in adolescents. Significant higher prevalence of lesions was noticed among subjects with a tobacco habit. There is a need to increase the awareness regarding oral mucosal lesions and also to prevent the deleterious oral habits.

Keywords: Oral mucosal lesions, Prevalence, Normal variants.

How to cite this article: Chauhan AS, Saha S, Reddy LVK. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions and Normal Variants of the Oral Mucosa in 12 to 15-year-old School Students in Lucknow - A Cross-Sectional Survey. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S50-53.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Sai Anil Babu Duvvi, M S Adarsha, H L Usha, P Ashwini, Chethana S Murthy, A K Shivekshith

Comparative Assessment of Different Concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite and Calcium Hypochlorite on Microhardness of Root Canal Dentin - An In Vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S54-58]



Introduction: The study aimed to assess the effect of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite on micro hardness of root canal dentin.

Methodology: The seventy five root halves were prepared by longitudinal splitting of seventy five extracted mandibular premolars and embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin, leaving the dentin surface exposed After polishing, the groups were then divided into five groups of 15 samples each through random sampling the microhardness values of the untreated dentin surfaces were recorded by using Vickers tester at the mid-root level. Then samples were surface treated for five minutes with five ml of one of the following irrigants Saline (control group), 2.5% NaOCl solution, 5% NaOCl solution, 5% CaOCl2 solution, 10% CaOCl2 solution. After surface treatment,dentin microhardness values were recorded at close proximity to the initial indentation areas. Experimental data were statistically analyzed by using one way ANOVA test followed by post hoc tuckey’s honest significant test and comparison between pre-treatment and post treatment groups by student pair T test.

Results: All irrigating solutions showed reduction in micro-hardness of root canal dentin except saline. 5% NaOCl and 10% CaOCl2 showed maximum reduction in microhardness. 2.5% NaOCl shown least reduction in microhardness followed by 5% CaOCl2 (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: 2.5% NaOCl and 5% CaOCl2 shown less reduction in microhardness of root canal dentin when compared to 5% NaOCl and 10% CaOCl2.

Keywords: Calcium hypochlorite, Microhardness, Root canal dentin, Sodium hypochlorite.

How to cite this article: Duvvi SAB, Adarsha MS, Usha HL, Ashwini P, Murthy CS, Shivekshith AK. Comparative Assessment of Different Concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite and Calcium Hypochlorite on Microhardness of Root Canal Dentin - An In Vitro Study. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S54-58.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
H. K. Ramya, Bhumika Kamal Badiyani, Amit Kumar

The Knowledge and Attitude of School Teachers about Management of Dental Trauma

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S59-62]



Background: Avulsion is defined as complete displacement of a tooth from its socket after trauma. The most accepted treatment for an avulsed permanent tooth is immediate replantation. Children spend a considerable amount of waking hours in school where teachers are the primary caregivers. Hence, this study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of school teachers about emergency management of dental trauma among Darbhanga primary and secondary school teachers.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study included a total of 227 teachers from different schools of Darbhanga. Questionnaire was used to collect information regarding teachers’ demographics, knowledge, and attitude about dental trauma.

Results: Only 18% believed that knocked out permanent tooth should be replanted back into position. Surprisingly, 28% of respondents were of the opinion that avulsed tooth is useless and time should not be spent in looking for it if it gets lost after avulsion.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that overall knowledge regarding the emergency management of avulsed tooth was unsatisfactory in teachers. The present study entails the need of first aid training to all the teachers along with emergency management of dental trauma.

Keywords: Avulsion, First-aid, Management, School, Teachers.

How to cite this article: Ramya HK, Badiyani BK, Kumar A. The Knowledge and Attitude of School Teachers about Management of Dental Trauma. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S59-62.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Sandhya P. Naik, Praveen Kumar Bankur, Saurabh Sathe, P. M. Mohamed Haris, Neethu Kadar, Ashok Satyanarayan

Impact of Fluoridated Water on Intelligence Quotient Levels of School Children - A Exploratory Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S63-66]



Background: In humans, dental and skeletal problems interconnected with fluoride are well documented. Disturbances of normal neurological functions of the central nervous system are of great concern among various biological effects associated with fluoride. Hence, the present study was conducted with an aim to assess the impact of fluoridated water on intelligence quotient (IQ) levels of school children.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study comprised 88 school children in each group. Three villages were selected according to the concentrations of naturally obtained fluoride in drinking water, i.e., fluoride level <1.2 ppm (low), fluoride level ranging 1.2-2 ppm (medium), and fluoride levels >2 ppm (high). The fluoride concentration in the water sample was then estimated using fluoride ion selective electrode method. IQ was estimated using the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices test. The independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and post hoc analysis were utilized to associate the mean marks of children in low, medium, and high-fluoride regions.

Results: Mean IQ level of school children was more (58.96 ± 11.65) in medium fluoride concentration of water, followed by low fluoride concentration of water (45.65 ± 12.40) and high fluoride concentration of water (32.98 ± 16.99) and there was a highly significant difference between the mean IQ levels and fluoride concentration. The maximum school children belonging to Grade III level (89.77%) in medium fluoride concentration and there was a highly significant difference between the fluoride concentration and IQ grades.

Conclusion: Fluoride concentration in drinking water is negatively correlated with IQ level of school children.

Key words: Fluoride, Intelligence quotient, Raven’s standard progressive matrices, School children.

How to cite this article: Naik SP, Bankur PK, Sathe S, Haris PMM, Kadar N, Satyanarayan A. Impact of Fluoridated Water on Intelligence Quotient Levels of School Children - A Exploratory Study. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S63-66.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Kiran Kurumboor, G. S. Tarun, R Vinay Chandra, V. Vasundhara, C. N. Aruna

Root Canal Morphology of Human Permanent Mandibular Anterior Teeth in an Indian Population using CBCT

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S67-71]



The tenets of root-canal treatment are the preparation, cleaning, and sealing of the root canals. An understanding of the variations in root-canal anatomy is necessary by those carrying out treatment. Recognition of a variation when it occurs is the first and most frequent step in completing successful treatment for these teeth.This study was done to evaluate differences in the root and canal configurations of mandibular permanent anterior incisors and canines in an Indian population by means of Cone Beam CT (CBCT) images

Key words: Mandibular anterior teeth morphology, CBCT, Indian population

How to cite this article: Kurumboor K, Tarun GS, Chandra RV, Vasundhara V, Aruna CN. Root canal morphology of human permanent mandibular anterior teeth in an indian population using CBCT Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S67-71.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
M. Radhika, P. Srinivas, Nijampatnam P. M. Pavani

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Bioethics among Postgraduate Students – An Institution-Based Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S72-76]



Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practices toward bioethics among postgraduate students of a dental institution.

Method: A self-administered pretested questionnaire was given to 80 students selected on the basis of convenience sampling. The questionnaire consists of questions related to knowledge and attitude toward principles and practice of bio-ethics in clinical research, informed consent, and role of the ethical committee in the institution. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd-year students were compared using Chi-square test.

Results: About 75% of the students have formally taken Hippocratic Oath. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding Institutional Ethical Committee, and informed consent was more among final year students when compared to their juniors. Source of knowledge of bioethics was multiple. Department lectures were not preferred a mode of learning (20.3%).

Conclusion: There is an urgent need to include practical education of ethics to bridge the gap in the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding ethics in clinical practice and research.

Keywords: Bioethics, Hippocratic Oath, Informed consent, Institutional Ethical Committee.

How to cite this article: Radhika M, Srinivas P, Pavani NPM. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Bioethics among Postgraduate Students - An Institution-Based Study. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S72-76.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Pooja R. Swami, Pronob Sanyal, Shine Mary Sam

Classification of Unconventional Removable Partial Denture

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S77-83]



Man treatment modalities are available for replacing missing teeth; removable partial denture, fixed partial denture or dental implant. The need of patient have led to the outcome of the special, i.e the unconventional approach for fabricating partial dentures. Each treatment option and has its own advantages and disadvantages.It is essential to clinically classify partially edentulous patients based on removable treatment options unlike classifications like Kennedy,Applegate. Classification of unconventional removable partial denture will guide choice of treatment based on suitable options.This classification will give a distinctive scheme for treatment in exceptionally unique conditions.In conventional classification treatment options are based on ideal situations but this classification will aid in panning treatment modality of partially edentulous patients where conventional treatment options do not fulfil the purpose.

Key words: Unconventional removable partial denture, Unusual removable partial denture, Uncommon removable partial denture

How to cite this article: Swami PR, Sanyal P, Sam SM. Classification of unconventional removable partial denture. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S77-83.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Jayesh Tiwari, Deoyani Doifode, Kirti Pattanshetti, Harshita Kothari

Assessment of Dental Caries Using Various Caries Risk Assessment Tools

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S84-88]



The recent increase in the prevalence of dental caries among young children has highlighted the need for a more systematic approach to prevent caries in children at a younger age. Oral health education and diet advice should be incorporated into each child, encourage early identification of high caries risk children and caries risk assessment should be done for children attending the dental clinic for dental assessment or emergency care, using the Caries Risk Assessment tools. Risk assessment tools have been proposed to identify children who require intensive interventions to prevent or minimize caries experience for their accuracy and clinical usefulness.

Keywords: Dental caries, Oral health, Risk assessment tools

How to cite this article: Tiwari J, Doifode D, Pattanshetti K, Kothari H. Assessment of Dental Caries Using Various Caries Risk Assessment Tools. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S84-88.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Ruchi Gopal, Deoyani Doifode, Pratik Surana, Shreya Lunia, Rishabh Sushil Sadhu, Sadia Aafreen

Revascularization: A New Hope for Necrotic Permanent Teeth with Immature Apex - A Review

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S89-96]



Root development commences after the completion of enamel formation. Irritation of pulp tissue results in major changes in pulp microcirculation that can lead to pulp necrosis and arrest root formation. The treatment of necrotic young permanent tooth with an immature open apex still presents multiple challenges in pediatric and endodontic dentistry. Conventionally, tooth that has lost its vitality is being treated by apexification. Through this technique, the formation of an apical barrier to close the open apex is promoted so that the filling materials can be confined to the root canal but it involves long-term periodic exchanges of calcium hydroxide paste into canal which may lead to weakening of the canal and tooth fracture. Furthermore, tissue regeneration cannot be achieved with apexification. Recently, revascularization is introduced as a new treatment modality for immature non-vital teeth. Revascularization not only provides apical closure but also increases the dentine wall thickness. As there is diversity in the treatment protocol for revascularization, it is pivotal to describe and discuss these protocols guiding researches in this field and thereby providing the clinicians to succeed in the treatment of non-vital tooth with immature apex. Hence, the present review aims to provide different protocol on revascularization.

Keywords: Revascularization, Non-vital immature teeth, Triple antibiotic paste

How to cite this article: Gopal R, Doifode D, Surana P, Lunia S, Sadhu RS, Aafreen S. Revascularization: A New Hope for Necrotic Permanent Teeth with Immature Apex - A Review. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S89-96.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Deepak Khandelwal, Namita Kalra, Rishi Tyagi, Amit Khatri, Dhiraj Kumar, Sunil Kumar

Fragment Reattachment of Two Teeth in a 12-year-old Child - A Case Report

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S97-99]



Coronal fractures are the most common form of dental trauma sustained by children and adolescents. Reattachment of a fractured fragment to the remaining tooth can provide estheti-cally pleasing results, providing that the fragment is available. The reattachment of a dental fragment may be performed for the treatment of traumatized anterior teeth, both in cases of simple coronal fracture or with complicated coronal fracture. The present article intends to present the successful clinical management of tooth fragment reattachment in one tooth with complicated crown fracture and other tooth with uncomplicated crown fracture.

Keywords: Coronal fragment, Dental trauma, Reattachment

How to cite this article: Khandelwal D, Kalra N, Tyagi R, Khatri A, Kumar D, Kumar S. Fragment Reattachment of Two Teeth in a 12-year-old Child - A Case Report. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S97-99.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Sumit Makkar, Shivang Aggarwal, Surbhi Mehta

A Simplified Technique to Create and Accurately Transfer an Optimal Emergence Profile Around Anterior Implant using Dynamic Compression Technique and Customized Transfer Coping

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S100-103]



Achieving soft tissue architecture is of paramount importance for success of implants in the esthetic zone. Soft tissue management around implant-supported restorations presents a challenge for the restoring dentist as well as the laboratory technician while fabricating the final prosthesis. This article describes a clinical method, in which conditioning of the soft tissue is carried out with the help of provisional restoration which applies pressure to contour the soft tissue. The aim is to establish an adequate emergence profile, recreate a balanced mucosa course and level in harmony with the gingiva of the adjacent teeth. This technique also serves to establish papilla height/width, localization of the mucosal zenith, and the tissue profile’s triangular shape.

Keywords: Anterior implants, Aesthetics, Emergence profile

How to cite this article: Makkar S, Aggarwal S, Mehta S. A Simplified Technique to Create and Accurately Transfer an Optimal Emergence Profile Around Anterior Implant using Dynamic Compression Technique and Customized Transfer Coping. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S100-103.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Rakhi Gupta, Anjali Miglani, Amit Gandhi, Neha Kapoor

Esthetic Management of Diastema Closure: An Innovative Technique Utilizing Putty Index Method

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March (Supplement)] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:104] [Pages No:S104-108]



Diastemas are one of the most common forms of malocclusion seen frequently in the midst of the maxillary central incisors. Along with midline diastema, there can be generalized spacing in anterior teeth, especially in the maxillary arch. The etiology for the same is considered to be multifactorial. These spacings lead to an unaesthetic smile, impairment of phonetics, and hindrance in maintaining oral hygiene. These can be managed either by surgical, orthodontic, periodontal, restorative, and prosthodontic procedures or by a combination of procedures to fulfill patient’s esthetic and functional demands. Recent advances in direct dental composite resin, give dental practitioner an advantage to perform minimal invasive esthetic dentistry which is conservative and also less time-consuming. This article introduces a case report of esthetic management of maxillary anterior spacing including midline diastema with composite resin utilizing direct technique along with the putty index method, with supplementary lab procedures.

Keywords: Direct composite resin, Midline diastema, Putty index method

How to cite this article: Gupta R, Miglani A, Gandhi A, Kapoor N. Esthetic Management of Diastema Closure: An Innovative Technique Utilizing Putty Index Method Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):S104-108.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


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