Current Issue Volume 6, Number 1 , January-March 2018

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Mandar Todkar, Nagesh Bhat, Gabriela Fernandes, Ihit Jain, Hitansh Pujari, Meehika Gaikwad

Is Oral Bacterial Flora with Dental Disease a Risk Factor for Recurrence of Peptic Ulcer Disease? A Retrospective Study on 644 Patients

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:1-4]



Background: From last few years, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) had a significant role in morbidity and mortality. Helicobacter pylori infections of the stomach are common worldwide. In the presence of dental diseases, oral bacterial flora usually contains relevant bacteria.

Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of oral bacterial flora associated with dental disease on the recurrence of PUD.

Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 644 patients who were admitted and diagnosed with PUD in the rural medical institute in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Patients’ oral bacterial flora with dental disease assisted by gastroscopic test findings were recorded before and after the exposure period. Patients were divided into two groups as exposed group (patient with one of the dental diseases in oral cavity) and nonexposed group (patient without one of the dental diseases in oral cavity). There was a follow-up of 6 months in order to evaluate recurrence of PUD. The recurrence of PUD was considered as the outcome of the study, and effect of oral bacterial flora with dental disease on the recurrence of PUD was investigated according to a logistic regression model.

Results: Out of the total, 644 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and all patients have history of PUD. The 6-month follow-up results were the oral bacterial flora with dental disease, a 1.54 times the odds of the PUD recurrence with existing systemic factors [p = 0.128; 95% confidence interval (CI) for odds ratio (OR) ranged from 0.88 to 2.68], whereas it was 1.95 times the odd of PUD recurrence without existing systemic factors (p = 0.010; 95% CI for OR ranged from 1.17 to 3.23) for exposed and nonexposed group, in which statistically significant difference was seen.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that there is an evident association between the oral bacteria flora with dental disease and PUD recurrence, but further prospective studies with large sample size will be useful in confirming the findings.

Keywords: Cohort study, Dental disease, Helicobacter pylori, Oral bacterial flora, Peptic ulcer disease, Streptococcus.

How to cite this article: Todkar M, Bhat N, Fernandes G, Jain I, Pujari H, Gaikwad M. Is Oral Bacterial Flora with Dental Disease a Risk Factor for Recurrence of Peptic Ulcer Disease? A Retrospective Study on 644 Patients. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):1-4.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Kamal J Manhas, Gaurav Malhotra, Pradeep Shukla, Preeti Shukla, Varun Dahiya, Prerna Kataria

Comparative Evaluation of Dentinal Tubule Occlusion Ability of Three Commercially Available Desensitizing Dentifrices: An in vitro Scanning Electron Microscope Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:5-11]



Introduction: Tooth sensitivity is a very common clinical presentation with a prevalence of 4 to 57 % and mostly occurs in the age group of 30 to 40 years. The dentinal tubule exposure is principally responsible for the clinical symptoms of dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the dentinal tubule occluding ability of three commercially available dentifrices (strontium chloride, potassium nitrate, and sodium monofluorophosphate) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Materials and methods: Freshly extracted 50 molars were collected and stored in 10% formalin. All experiments were conducted within 2 months of extraction. The teeth were sectioned mesiodistally and ultrasonicated and were randomly divided (10 each) into five groups:
• Group I: Specimens immersed in artificial saliva for 1 week.
• Group II: Specimens brushed with distilled water only.
• Group III: Specimens brushed with strontium chloridecontaining toothpaste.
• Group IV: Specimens brushed with potassium nitratecontaining toothpaste.
• Group V: Specimens brushed with sodium monofluorophosphate- containing toothpaste.
Each SEM photomicrograph was critically analyzed for exposed and occluded dentinal tubules after application of the various agents.

Results: Statistically significant difference was found out among the five groups (p < 0.001). It was seen that the mean percentage of occluded dentinal tubules of groups I, II, III, IV, and V was 35.47, 23.32, 75.90, 85.27, and 90.21% respectively.

Conclusion: The present in vitro SEM study results revealed that all the experimental agents were effective in occluding dentinal tubules as compared with the control group. The percentage of occluded tubules was found to be highest for sodium monofluorophosphate as compared with the other groups over a period of 7 days.

Keywords: Dentin sensitivity/therapy, Dentinal hypersensitivity, Desensitizing dentifrices, Scanning electron microscope study.

How to cite this article: Manhas KJ, Malhotra G, Shukla P, Shukla P, Dahiya V, Kataria P. Comparative Evaluation of Dentinal Tubule Occlusion Ability of Three Commercially Available Desensitizing Dentifrices: An in vitro Scanning Electron Microscope Study. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):5-11.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Rahul Jain, Richa Pathak, Shubham Agrawal, Kamini Dadsena, Varun Kumar, Manthru N Ramavath

Comparison of the Efficiency of Maxillomandibular Fixation Screws over Erich Arch Bars in achieving Intermaxillary Fixation in Maxillofacial Trauma: A Clinical Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:12-16]



Introduction: Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) is regarded as a significant step in the management of maxillofacial trauma. Various techniques have been mentioned in the literature for achieving maxillomandibular fixation (MMF). Conventional methods like arch bars and eyelet wiring are the most commonly used, but these methods have their own shortcomings. With the introduction of self-tapping MMF screws in 1989, many of the drawbacks with the use of arch bars can be eliminated. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of MMF screws over arch bars in achieving IMF.

Materials and methods: A total of 30 patients who required IMF as a part of their treatment and reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences and KLE Dr Prabhakar Kore Charitable Hospital, Belgaum were included in the study. Patients were divided randomly into two groups: group I: patients treated using MMF screws and group II: patients treated using arch bars. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test and unpaired t-test.

Results: There was a significant difference in oral hygiene index between the two groups at the end of 14th postoperative day. The time taken for the placement of MMF screws was significantly less (mean 18.7 minutes) as compared with arch bars (mean 41.2 minutes). Screw loosening was seen in 4 (26%) out of 15 patients and 3 screws (4.5%) out of 66 screws used showed partial mucosal coverage at the end of 2 weeks. There were no cases of penetration injury in group I while in group II, penetration injury to the surgeon was noted in 5 (33.3%) cases.

Conclusion: Maxillomandibular fixation screws provided good intraoperative MMF. Placement of screws consumes less time and reduces the intraoperative period and also the risk of penetration injury to the surgeon. We also observed better oral hygiene, better patient compliance, and no major complications with the use of MMF screws. Hence, MMF screws proved to be an efficient alternative to the conventional methods of achieving IMF.

Keywords: Erich arch bars, Intermaxillary fixation, Maxillomandibular fixation screws.

How to cite this article: Jain R, Pathak R, Agrawal S, Dadsena K, Kumar V, Ramavath MN. Comparison of the Efficiency of Maxillomandibular Fixation Screws over Erich Arch Bars in achieving Intermaxillary Fixation in Maxillofacial Trauma: A Clinical Study. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):12-16.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Doddarayapete N Umashankar, Kranthi S Kumar, R Mahesh Kumar, Narasimhamurthy Srinath, Chaithra Patil

Efficacy of Calcium Phosphosilicate as Graft Material in Bony Defects

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:17-23]



Aim: To assess bone regeneration following calcium phosphosilicate (CPS) (NOVABONE®) as graft material in bony defects.

Materials and methods: A prospective study was performed with sample size of 10, where CPS putty was used in patients requiring bone grafting following enucleation of odontogenic cysts, socket preservation, sinus lift, and ridge augmentation procedure. Bone density was assessed using a gray-value histogram, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Friedman test.

Results: On assessing bone density, the test group has showed more mean values of bone density 128.1, 121.3, and 116.8 in the immediate, 4th, and 6th month postoperatively respectively, compared with 102.9 preoperatively with a p-value of <0.001, which is statistically significant.

Conclusion: Placement of CPS putty in bony regeneration of maxillofacial defects has shown satisfactory results. However, larger sample size, longer follow-up, and categorization of the defects are required to assess its efficacy in respective defects.

Keywords: Bone density, Bone healing, Calcium phosphosilicate, Socket preservation.

How to cite this article: Umashankar DN, Kumar KS, Kumar RM, Srinath N, Patil C. Efficacy of Calcium Phosphosilicate as Graft Material in Bony Defects. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):17-23.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Lata Warad, Civy V Pulayath, Mathews Baby, Siraj P Ismail

Assessment of Oral Health Knowledge, Dental Caries, and Periodontal Status among Attendants of Degree Colleges in South India

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:24-29]



Introduction: Oral health means more than healthy teeth. Knowledge of oral and general health can be acquired through different ways. Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, description skills which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving or learning that can refer to a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject.

Aims and objectives: The present study was conducted to assess oral health knowledge, dental caries, and periodontal status among attendants in degree colleges in Virajpet.

Materials and methods: The study population included a total of about 110 attendants aged above 20 years from degree colleges who were selected randomly working in six colleges that had given permission for the study. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess oral health knowledge, dental caries, and periodontal status among attendants in degree colleges in Virajpet.

Results: Out of the 110 participants, 51 were males (46.02%) with mean age of 36.62 years and 59 (53.63%) were females with mean age of 34.98 years. Socioeconomic status of the study subjects was assessed using Kuppuswamy scale 2012. Sixty-four attendants belong to lower middle class and 46 belong to lower class. Mean decayed component score is 4.42 in males and 4.0 in females; mean missing component score was 3.2 in males and 3.52 in females. Mean filled component score in males was 1.94 and 1.73 in females. The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) scores among males is 1.33 and in females 1.55, with standard deviation of 0.886 and 0.887. The periodontal status was found to be nonsignificant between the groups (p = 0.212). Loss of attachment (LOA) scores are 0.07 in males and 0.22 in females, with standard deviation of 0.271 and 0.527. Loss of attachment was found to be nonsignificant between the groups (p = 0.086).

Conclusion: Overall oral health knowledge among attendants was not as high as those compared with subjects belonging to other occupation and with different education level in previous literature.

Keywords: Attendants, Dental caries, Oral health knowledge, Periodontal status.

How to cite this article: Warad L, Pulayath CV, Baby M, Ismail SP. Assessment of Oral Health Knowledge, Dental Caries, and Periodontal Status among Attendants of Degree Colleges in South India. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):24-29.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Subhash Aswin, Mithra N Hegde, Shishir Shetty, Mahalaxmi Yelpure

Prevalence of Anterior Tooth Discoloration in Southwest Coastal Population

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:30-33]



Introduction: To determine the prevalence of discoloration of anterior teeth in the southwest coastal population of India. The study was conducted on 1,000 patients visiting the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences and rural satellite centers of Nitte University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India.

Materials and methods: Anterior discoloration was evaluated using a questionnaire based on World Health Organization Oral Health Survey, 2013.

Results: The study concluded that anterior discoloration was found more in 31 to 40 age groups, in males, in laborers, and in rural population.

Conclusion: It was observed that tooth discoloration seems to be affecting more in the age group of 31 to 40 years. The rural population was seen to be affected more than the urban population; prevalence of tooth discoloration was observed more in the laborers and was seen high in mixed diet population.

Keywords: Amelogenesis imperfecta, Anterior teeth discoloration, Dentinogenesis imperfecta.

How to cite this article: Aswin S, Hegde MN, Shetty S, Yelpure M. Prevalence of Anterior Tooth Discoloration in Southwest Coastal Population. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):30-33.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
V Chandrakala, DB Nandeeshwar

Association between Clinical and Subjective Analysis of Denture Adhesives on Retention of Maxillary Complete Dentures: A Comparative Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:34-37]



Background and objectives: Adequate retention is a basic requirement for the acceptance of complete dentures. There are occasional situations in which many patients frequently resort to the use of denture adhesives. Because of limitations of many techniques to measure retention and its sensitivity, this study was planned to evaluate and compare the clinical and subjective analysis of bite force until denture dislodgement (BFDD) required to displace an existing maxillary complete denture without and with the use of denture adhesive in patients, with the help of customized autoclavable gnathometer which facilitates simple measurement of BFDD of the maxillary denture.

Materials and methods: A total of 20 edentulous subjects (14 males and 6 females) with age ranging from 50 to 76 years were randomly selected for the study. For the study purpose, following groups were made:
Group I—Subjects whose BFDD was recorded for existing complete denture without denture adhesive.
Group II—Subjects whose BFDD was recorded for existing complete denture with denture adhesive.
The BFDD measurements and subjective experiences were recorded. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for different time intervals and Student’s t-test for group-wise comparison.

Results: The results of the present study showed that consistent improvements were observed in BFDD when adhesive was used, for all time intervals from the baseline to T2 followed by a decline from T4 to T8. The p-value was highly significant (p < 0.001, HS) at all time intervals for existing complete dentures. When comparison was made between clinical and subjective analysis, this study confirmed expected improvement in retention of maxillary complete denture persisting throughout the procedure, which was predicted by clinical study. Also, measured BFDD values were less for female subjects compared with male subjects.

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the BFDD values increased by denture adhesive application. Hence, it can be recommended that denture adhesive use can provide increased retention and psychological comfort for the subjects.

Keywords: Bite force, Denture adhesive, Gnathometer.

How to cite this article: Chandrakala V, Nandeeshwar DB. Association between Clinical and Subjective Analysis of Denture Adhesives on Retention of Maxillary Complete Dentures: A Comparative Study. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):34-37.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Shaleen Khetarpal, Unnati Pitale, Mishthu Solanki, Madhu S Ratre, Manish Verma, Ruchi Gulati

Management of Intrabony Defects using Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute Alone or Combined with a Collagen Barrier: A Pilot Split-mouth Randomized Clinical Trial

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:38-46]



Aim: To determine the clinical efficacy of biphasic hydroxyapatite+β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) alone or in the presence of collagen membrane (CM) in the management of intrabony defects.

Materials and methods: Nineteen bilateral intrabony defects with an intrabony component ≥4 mm were selected and randomly allocated in a double-blind, split-mouth design to receive either HA/β-TCP+CM (test) or HA/β-TCP (control). Analytical parameters measured at baseline and 1 year after surgery included plaque index, gingival index, probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession (R), radiographic defect depth (RDD), and radiographic percentage bone fill (PBF).

Results: One year after therapy, the test treatment resulted in statistically higher PD reductions (p < 0.001) and CAL gains (p < 0.001) than the control one. In the test group, all sites (100%) gained at least 3 mm of CAL, whereas in the control group only 10 sites (53%) gained CAL of ≥3 mm. The mean radiographic PBF calculated at the end of 1 year was found to be 41.3 ± 20.6% for the test group and 30 ± 20.5% for the control group, with a significant (p = 0.016) improvement in the PBF for the former.

Conclusion: The present data appear to indicate that treatment with HA/β-TCP in combination with collagen barrier may result in higher clinical improvements than that achieved with HA/β-TCP alone.

Keywords: Collagen, Grafts, Guided tissue regeneration, Hydroxyapetite, Membrane.

How to cite this article: Khetarpal S, Pitale U, Solanki M, Ratre MS, Verma M, Gulati R. Management of Intrabony Defects using Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute Alone or Combined with a Collagen Barrier: A Pilot Split-mouth Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Oral Care Res 2018; 6(1):38-46.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Sweta Pisulkar, Trupti Dahane, Ashok J Pakhan, Surekha R Godbole, Rajiv Bhola

Analysis of Bacterial Colonization due to Salivary Contamination on Gypsum Casts and Effect of Various Means of Disinfection of Dental Casts on Bacterial Colonization: An in vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:47-53]



Statement of problem: Prosthodontics patients, dentist, and staff are at a high risk for cross-contamination and disease transmission from each other. Addressing the above problem, two identifiable concerns are: (1) How the dentist and his staff can be protected from disease acquisition and disease transmission to patients and (2) steps taken to help to minimize cross-contamination with prosthetic instrumentation. The recovery of microorganisms from the dental casts may be a medium of cross-contamination between patients and dental personnel.

Aim: To determine whether saliva contamination contributes to bacterial growth on dental cast over a period of time and whether cleaning or disinfecting can minimize contamination and to evaluate the effectiveness of various chemicals disinfectants.

Materials and methods: Five type III gypsum casts were contaminated with saliva. Blood agar plates were inoculated and incubated at 37°C for 72 hours. Standardized dental stone cylinders were contaminated with 25 μL of saliva and treated by rinsing in tap water, soaking in 2% glutaraldehyde, 0.525% sodium hypochlorite, 0.5% phenol, or as controls with and without saliva contamination. The treated dental stone cylinders were placed in individual test tubes containing 2.5 mL of sterile phosphate- buffered solution and a final dilution of 10-4 was achieved. Colony-forming units (CFU) were counted after 24 hours.

Results: Rinsing the dental cast with tap water can diminish bacterial growth, but it cannot be considered as a reliable method of disinfection of the gypsum cast, as it may also sometimes even lead to further contamination. Immersion of the gypsum cast in 2% glutaraldehyde for 5 minutes completely eliminates bacterial colonization in almost all the instances.

Conclusion: Bacterial contamination of dental casts can occur, and requires an effective method of disinfecting.

Keywords: Bacterial colonization, Chemical disinfection, Gypsum cast, Salivary contamination.

How to cite this article: Pisulkar S, Dahane T, Pakhan AJ, Godbole SR, Bhola R. Analysis of Bacterial Colonization due to Salivary Contamination on Gypsum Casts and Effect of Various Means of Disinfection of Dental Casts on Bacterial Colonization: An in vitro Study. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):47-53.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Azeez Ajas, Babu Anulekh, Sakkir Nasil, Khaleel A Thaha, Varughese J Mary

Comparative Evaluation of Sealing Ability of Biodentine and White MTA-Angelus as Furcation Repair Materials: A Dye Extraction Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:54-57]



Context: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is widely advocated as perforation repair material even though it has limited handling properties and prolonged setting time. Biodentine is an advanced calcium silicate material, which can overcome various disadvantages of MTA.

Aim: To evaluate and compare the sealing ability of MTA and Biodentine as furcation perforation repair materials.

Materials and methods: Thirty-five extracted permanent mandibular molars were collected and divided into two experimental groups and one control group. Standard access openings were prepared in all the samples and completely covered with nail varnish. Furcations were created in the experimental samples using a no. 4 round bur and repaired with Biodentine in group I (n = 15) and white MTA-Angelus in group II (n = 15). The negative control group, group III (n = 5), was left intact without perforation; 2% methylene blue dye was applied inside the access cavities of all the samples and stored in the dye for 48 hours. After complete removal of the dye, samples were immersed in concentrated nitric acid for extraction of the dye. The solutions were analyzed in a spectrophotometer at 550 nm with concentrated nitric acid as blank to detect the amount of dye and the values were recorded as absorbance units.

Statistical analysis used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe multiple comparison test.

Results: Statistically significant difference (p-value < 0.001) in the mean dye leakage values was obtained on comparing Biodentine with MTA, where Biodentine exhibited less leakage.

Conclusion: Biodentine exhibited significantly less microleakage compared with white MTA-Angelus when used as a furcation perforation repair material and may be considered over MTA for the purpose.

Keywords: Biodentine, Dye extraction, Perforation repair, Ultraviolet spectrophotometry, White MTA-Angelus.

How to cite this article: Ajas A, Anulekh B, Nasil S, Thaha KA, Mary VJ. Comparative Evaluation of Sealing Ability of Biodentine and White MTA-Angelus as Furcation Repair Materials: A Dye Extraction Study. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):54-57.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Saeed M AlQahtani

Awareness and Acceptance of Dental Implants as a Treatment Modality for Replacement of Missing Teeth among Patients in Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:58-64]



Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the level, sources of information, awareness, and acceptance of dental implant therapy among dental patients in Aseer region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Materials and methods: Information on demographic variables, level and sources of information, awareness, and acceptance of dental implant therapy as a treatment modality was obtained by self-explanatory survey containing 17 questions. The data were collected at five government dental health centers at Aseer region. The survey forms were distributed by in-charge dentist to the patients who were on routine visit. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed out of which 479 were included in the survey.

Results: The survey analysis demonstrated that 87% of participants were aware of dental implant therapy. Participants with high education level showed more awareness compared with lower education level (p < 0.05); 22.2% of participants were well informed about dental implants, 59.3% of them were moderately informed, 16.1% of them were poorly informed, and 2.4% were not informed about dental implants. The high cost (41.5%) was the major reason for people not choosing implant therapy followed by other reasons, such as fear of unknown side effects (33.0%), the need for surgery (13.5%), and long duration of treatment (12.0%).

Conclusion: The surveyed participants in Aseer region were well aware about dental implants as a treatment option in replacing missing teeth. However, the dentists should provide accurate information to the patients regarding implant therapy irrespective of the patient’s willingness to undergo therapy or not. High treatment cost for dental implant therapy was the main reason for patients refraining from implant therapy.

Keywords: Acceptance, Awareness, Dental implants, Information sources, Knowledge.

How to cite this article: AlQahtani SM. Awareness and Acceptance of Dental Implants as a Treatment Modality for Replacement of Missing Teeth among Patients in Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):58-64.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None




Introduction: The progress of research in the field of dental stem cells is at a high pace. Various studies have shown oral tissues to be a good source for adult stem cells and therefore dentists can play a great role in the field of regenerative therapies. For the dentists to explore the different applications of oral stem cells, they should be aware of the basic biology and storing and processing of stem cells. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the applications of stem cells in dentistry, among the interns and dental teaching faculty members of two dental colleges in Ernakulam, Kerala, India.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was carried out, consisting of 16 questions, to assess the objectives of the study. The study was conducted among dental house surgeons, postgraduate students, and teaching faculty members of two dental colleges in Ernakulam district, Kerala, India. For each question, the results were expressed as a number and percentage of responses and inferential statistical analysis was done using chi-square test.

Results: Almost majority of the dentists (84%) never received any training on handling and processing of oral stem cells, but about 89% were interested in attending training workshops. The majority (77.9%) were willing to practice regenerative dentistry.

Conclusion: Dentists are supportive for using stem cell-based regenerative treatments in their practice and are interested in attending more training for the same. Most of the dentists feel that the undergraduate syllabus should include this topic.

Keywords: Dentists, Regenerative dentistry, Stem cells.

How to cite this article: Jose N. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice regarding Applications of Stem Cells in Dentistry among Dental House Surgeons, Postgraduate Students, and Teaching Faculties in Two Dental Colleges in Ernakulam, Kerala, India. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):65-68.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Paul Pudukadan, Julie G Alapatt, Noxy G Manjuran, Jaini Lalithamma, Vidya K Shenoy, Edwin Kunnamkumarath

Evaluation of Temporization Period with Zinc Oxide Eugenol and Non-eugenol Cement on Bond Strength of Self-adhesive Dual-cure Resin Cement.

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:69-76]



Context: Eugenol-based cements are used for temporization; however, they affect the physical properties of resin cements.

Aim: To evaluate effect of eugenol and non-eugenol-containing temporary cements on the tensile bond strength of self-adhesive dual-cure resin cement (SARC) at intervals of 24 hours, 7 days, and 14 days.

Settings and design: Preclinical in vitro material study.

Materials and methods: A total of 105 freshly extracted, intact, maxillary premolars were divided into seven groups consisting of 15 teeth each followed by preparation to receive cast metal crowns. They were temporized using eugenol cement in groups II, III, and IV, non-eugenol cement in groups V, VI, and VII, and stored in distilled water for specific periods. Provisional cement was removed using ultrasonic scaler and cleaned with pumice-water slurry. Thereafter, the cast crowns were cemented using SARC.46 The tensile bond strength of SARC in the respective groups were tested on the universal testing machine using “Crown pull test” at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure.

Results: Results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc test. After 24 hours, significant reduction in the bond strength was observed in both eugenol and non-eugenol groups. After 7 and 14 days, the reduction in the bond strength was insignificant. No significant differences were found in the bond strengths of SARC among eugenol and non-eugenol groups.

Conclusion: The study showed that waiting for a week before performing cementation with SARC when using eugenol or non-eugenol provisional cements displayed favorable results.

Keywords: Non-eugenol cement, Provisional restoration, Selfadhesive dual-cure resin cement, Temporization, Zinc oxide eugenol cement.

How to cite this article: Pudukadan P, Alapatt JG, Manjuran NG, Lalithamma J, Shenoy VK, Kunnamkumarath E. Evaluation of Temporization Period with Zinc Oxide Eugenol and Non-eugenol Cement on Bond Strength of Self-adhesive Dual-cure Resin Cement. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):69-76.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Deoyani Doifode, Alkesh Godhane, Kirti S Pattanshetti, Shreya Sanklecha, Rituraj Kesri, Chayan Jain

Dental Caries Indices used for Detection, Diagnosis, and Assessment of Dental Caries

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:77-81]



Background: Due to increasing problem of oral health diseases worldwide, there is urgent need of comprehensive data collection system. Traditionally, carious lesions were detected and evaluated using physical criteria that consist of size, depth, and existence or absence of cavitations. Untreated caries in children were increasing like epidemic and there is an urgent need to determine a system that can assess initiation of dental caries to advanced stages so as to determine the disease diagnosis and decide on appropriate clinical treatment. Paucity of consistent and standardized criteria to detect caries which are applicable universally is a major issue in caries measurement. This may result in confusion among clinicians, educators, and researchers in interpretation of data from various research studies, leading to apparently conflicting results.

Aim: This article is presented with the aim of studying in detail about different dental caries indices used for detection, diagnosis, and estimation of dental caries.

Conclusion: Reliable, reproducible, and realistic detection and estimation of dental caries lesions as a result of dental caries have been a challenge for a long time. There are many promising newer dental caries indices, which will help in identifying caries at early or precavitated stage and accurate diagnosis of dental caries.

Keywords: Dental caries, Detection, Diagnosis.

How to cite this article: Doifode D, Godhane A, Pattanshetti KS, Sanklecha S, Kesri R, Jain C. Dental Caries Indices used for Detection, Diagnosis, and Assessment of Dental Caries. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):77-81.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Pavithra K Ramanna

Dental Management of Oral Complications in Oncology Patients

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:82-85]



Oral complications that follow cancer therapy can occur as a side effect of the treatment therapy itself or an indirect result of the therapy. Cancer patients, who have undergone chemotherapy/ radiation therapy, have a lifelong susceptibility to uncontrolled dental disease. Therefore, the counseling of such patients regarding these complications, and the dietary and oral hygiene measures to be adopted to counter the same, is of paramount importance. This article reviews the treatment modalities and preventive measures essential to managing posttreatment complications in oncology patients from a dental perspective.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, Dentures, Mucositis, Oral cancer, Osteoradionecrosis, Radiotherapy.

How to cite this article: Ramanna PK. Dental Management of Oral Complications in Oncology Patients. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):82-85.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Timsi Rajani, Aishwarya Rao, Kunal Oswal, Anita Peter

Tobacco Consumption and Premalignant Lesions among Police Personnel in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:86-89]



Aims and objectives: Indian judiciary plays an important part in the community both as law enforcers and as role model for appropriate behavior. Despite this, investigation reveals that they consume a higher level of tobacco. The health hazards of tobacco consumption among police officers of Mumbai and the strength of its association with premalignant lesions with regard to frequency of consumption were intended to be studied.

Settings and design: Clinical oral examination was performed by the experts and a questionnaire was filled by the police personnel. After the screening procedure, findings of habit mongers were recorded.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional camp approach with multiphasic screening of the police officers was adopted in the study. Two random police units with 200 police personnel were selected for the study. Structured closed-ended questionnaire was filled by them. It was followed by clinical oral examination by expert for screening and identification of precancerous lesions.

Statistical analysis: Mean percentage proportion was used for data analysis.

Results: Remarkable cause for tobacco consumption is occupational stress and the fact that policemen are burdened with mental stress beyond imagination. Among the study of total chewing population, the association between tobacco chewers and the ones who are not with regard to development of premalignant lesions was significant.

Conclusion: A significant association was found between the factors causing premalignant lesions and the frequency of tobacco consumption. Periodic health consultations and promotion of hazards of tobacco consumption play an important role in restraining these policemen from such “flavored addictive carcinogens.”

Keywords: Carcinogens, Police, Premalignant lesion, Survey, Tobacco.

How to cite this article: Rajani T, Rao A, Oswal K, Peter A. Tobacco Consumption and Premalignant Lesions among Police Personnel in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):86-89.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Shaeesta K Bhavikatti, Nabeeh A Alqahtani, Sai N Jyothsna, Munivenkatappa LV Prabhuji, Shakil Moidin, Rashmi Paramashivaiah

Anticytokine Therapy: The Newer Horizons Revisited

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:90-98]



In the recent era of molecular biology, the focus on the progression of periodontitis is mainly on inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines initiated due to microorganisms. Cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) play a vital role in alveolar bone destruction and extracellular matrix degradation in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Hence, the concept of inhibition of cytokine production or action through anticytokine therapy is implicated in various immune and inflammatory disorders and periodontitis. The concept of anticytokine therapy has grabbed quite an attention when compared with other existing treatment strategies for immune and inflammatory disorders. However, literature on anticytokine therapy in dentistry, particularly periodontology explaining the newer concepts, is not available till date. Therefore, the present study reviews the comprehensive appraisal of the newer aspects of anticytokine therapy and its applications in periodontology.

Keywords: Anticytokines, Cytokines, Host modulation, Periodontitis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Signaling pathways, Soluble receptors.

How to cite this article: Bhavikatti SK, Alqahtani NA, Jyothsna SN, Prabhuji MLV, Moidin S, Paramashivaiah R. Anticytokine Therapy: The Newer Horizons Revisited. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):90-98.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Zeineb Riahi, Marwa Chakroun, Rania Hadhri, Adel Amor, Belhassen Harzallah, Mounir Cherif, Dalenda Hadyaoui

Zirconia-based Fixed Partial Dentures in the Maxillary Anterior Region.

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:99-102]



The absence of anterior maxillary teeth, as a result of congenital anomalies, or their loss due to extensive carious lesions or a trauma may lead to serious esthetic and functional problems. Therefore, the anterior esthetic and functional rehabilitation is a common practice in fixed prosthodontics. Even though handling it successfully is still a challenge for the practitioner, in such cases, performing fixed partial dentures (FPDs) is the most common procedure to replace lost teeth. The choice we are offered is either metal ceramic FPD, which is the gold standard in fixed restorations, or zirconia-based FPD. Nowadays, the choice is to combine longevity to desirable esthetic result. Several parameters should be studied to decide one of the two options. In this study, a 55-year-old male patient consulted to replace teeth #11 and #12. A zirconia-based FPD was indicated.

Keywords: All ceramic fixed partial denture, Anterior fixed partial denture, Esthetics, Zirconia.

How to cite this article: Riahi Z, Chakroun M, Hadhri R, Amor A, Harzallah B, Cherif M, Hadyaoui D. Zirconia-based Fixed Partial Dentures in the Maxillary Anterior Region. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):99-102.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Vijay Bagul, Sameer Parhad, Manish L Thadani, Vishal Dhanjani, Ketan Vora, Bipin Upadhay

Complex Malocclusion Simple Solution

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:107] [Pages No:103-107]



Treatment of class III malocclusions is dealt by a small percentage of orthodontic practices, and providing them with optimal treatment is a tough task. Treatment of class III malocclusions is always an enigma for orthodontists, whatever the stage of severity associated with the malocclusion. Such cases, if required in early mixed dentition, can be given optimal results with minimally invasive protocols.

In nongrowing individuals, nonextraction or nonsurgical treatment modalities are a challenging task for any orthodontist. Face mask therapy for growing individuals produces predictable maxillary protraction against the prognathic mandible.

Keywords: Face mask therapy, Growing individuals, Maxillary protraction, Nonextraction approach.

How to cite this article: Bagul V, Parhad S, Thadani ML, Dhanjani V, Vora K, Upadhay B. Complex Malocclusion Simple Solution. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6(1):103-107.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


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